Jumat, 28 April 2017

women and sexuality

10 fascinating facts about the celts 10. they probably didn’t originate in ireland

women and sexuality
As information if your partner wants to prolong the duration of intercourse you can use hajar jahanam will stick here we do not discuss the length of the drug but women and sexuality. your mind has just been blown, right? over the years we’ve come to associate theterm “celtic” with ireland (thanks in large part, in recent history, to the nbateam the boston celtics, whose logo is a leprechaun covered in shamrocks).

but historians have concluded that the celtsalmost certainly didn’t originate in ireland – or scotland, or wales, or even england,for that matter. instead, their roots have been traced backto central europe, with austria being the likeliest point of origin. emerging from the late bronze age along thedanube river, celtic tribes are believed to have initially lived throughout continentaleurope. eventually, these tribes expanded north anddid settle in the united kingdom. but when you think of ancient tribal warriorsfrom ireland, the odds are pretty strong you’re not thinking of the celts; you’re thinkingof the gaels.

of course, even that is a little more complicatedthan it sounds, so we’ll come back to that later. 9. the romans had nothing on their roads while romans often get credited for beingthe road-builders of europe, there’s substantial evidence to suggest that the celts beat themto the punch. not that the history books would ever tellyou that, because as we all know, history is written by the winners. and for the bulk of early recorded history,the winners resided in the roman empire.

when you’re the biggest, baddest dude onthe block, you can take what you want, including credit for things others have done. and according to some, that includes the buildingof roads. archaeological evidence now suggests thatit was the celts, and not the romans, who were the first to build roads. remnants of these roads would seem to indicatethat they were constructed before the roman conquest reached the british isles. these roads were constructed largely out ofwood, which was carbon dated to the iron age – an indication that they predated the romanempire expanding that far north.

and speaking of the iron age… 8. they were among the first to utilize ironweaponry one aspect of celtic culture you’re no doubtaware of is their reputation as fierce warriors. they were also technologically ahead of theirtime, which gave them a pretty giant leg up on their enemies. after all, this is the group that inventedthe exact chainmail that was later adopted by the famous roman legions. that obviously flies in the face of old rumorsthat the celts fought naked, since we can’t

imagine chainmail would feel particularlygreat clanging against your junk. but it wasn’t just superior armor that gavethe celts an advantage in battle; it was superior arms, as well. the celts are believed to be among the veryfirst to forge iron into swords, replacing the flimsier bronze swords most had been usingup until sometime around 800 bc. they also began to utilize smaller, lighterswords and daggers, also made of iron, around 600 bc. these were far less cumbersome than broadswords,enabling the celts to be more agile and quicker to strike on the battlefield.

7. the celts were hugely wealthy while history often paints the celts in broadstrokes as being somewhat barbaric, savage warriors, that’s not exactly the case. sure, they did participate in some acts ofbarbarism, and many practiced ritual human sacrifice. and yes, we’re going to get to that in justa bit. but that aside, they were also massively wealthy,thanks in large part to being highly active in trade of the time.

being among the first to utilize iron certainlyhelped fill their coffers as well. gold was so abundant among the celtic regionsthat they used it in their armor, weaponry, and art. silver and bronze were also widely used, andthey became renowned for their finely crafted and ornate jewelry. their artistry was among the best in the worldat the time, and their scientific and technological prowess was a big part of that. through their art, their wine, their vastquantities of gold, and their advancements in technology, the celts were able to linetheir pockets very nicely indeed.

6. they had slavery… kind of now, to be sure, the celts did indeed practicea form of slavery. but – and not that this is justificationor makes it even remotely better, in principle – it was much closer to the serfdom of medievaltimes than the actual slavery we’re most familiar with from history books. and as usual when you’re talking about tribesprone to war, many of these slaves were prisoners of war who were held within the tribe’sregion and forbidden traditional rights and

privileges of anyone actually from that tribe. when a prisoner was taken, or a criminal offeredto the victim’s family as restitution for his crime, he was bound to that person orfamily for life. he had no right of inheritance, was forbiddenfrom taking up arms, and was more or less simply the lowest rung of the sociologicalladder. most of what we know of slavery in celticsociety comes from remnants of law texts from places like ireland and wales, so obviouslythere are pretty massive gaps in the information we’ve got. that said, while you were afforded virtuallyno rights as a slave held by one of the celts,

the consensus seems to be that treatment wasstill more humane than slaves of many other cultures throughout history. 5. they had progressive views on gender and sexuality while we can’t exactly call the celts progressivein terms of their views on slavery, we absolutely can when it comes to women and sexuality. now, don’t get us wrong: even in a somewhatprogressive tribal society, it was still patriarchal. but that doesn’t mean women didn’t havea say, or couldn’t rise to power, or even become warriors or dignitaries.

in fact, quite the opposite is true. particularly before the roman conquest, celticwomen could lead tribes, as was the case with boudica. obviously, boudica represents far from thenorm, but was one of a few celtic women to rise to power and lead her people before herdeath circa 60 ad. she was the queen of her tribe, and led herwarriors into battle against the roman empire. and speaking of gender and sexuality, oneelement of celtic culture that’s become widely believed is that not only could womenhold positions of power, but that celtic men often preferred the, ahem, “company” ofother men.

it was commonplace for men to seek out sexualcompanionship with their fellow male warriors, and likewise, women practiced free love inceltic culture, according to historical records from their contemporaries. 4. they weren’t savages but they did hunt heads as we’ve mentioned a few times at this point,the celts were far from the barbarians history has often painted them to be. they were an advanced society, took greatcare and pride in their appearance, and were wise enough to know it was an affront to wineconnoisseurs everywhere to water the stuff

down like those simpletons in the greek androman empires. but that doesn’t mean they didn’t participatein at least a few practices that might qualify as barbaric and savage. chief among those practices – other thanritualistic human sacrifice, which we’ll get back to shortly – was headhunting. as with ritualistic sacrifices, celtic headhuntingwas driven by religion, for the most part. you see, the celts believed that the headcontained a warrior’s soul, so by taking his head you are, in fact, capturing thatsoul. at least, that’s one popular theory as towhy they hunted heads, though the exact reason

is not known, and likely varied from tribeto tribe, and warrior to warrior, particularly since the practice continued even after mostceltic tribes had converted to christianity. 3. the number three had a huge significance we’ll be delving into the religion of thecelts in just a moment, but a substantial part of their belief system was the conceptof “triplicity.” while that may sound like a knockoff travelwebsite, in reality it has to do with the number three. specifically, things coming in the form of‘triplets’, so to speak.

that means three realms (sky, land, and sea),and three types of gods (personal, tribal, and spirits). now, the celts didn’t just have three gods,mind you. they had many. when we talk about the celts worshipping threetypes of gods, we’re talking about the kinds that guide you when you’re alone, the kindsthat are with you when you’re in groups, and those that protect your home. to put it simply, triplicity refers to threethings that come together to form a whole. it’s an important part of cosmology andastrology, which were integral parts druid

paganism. which leads us to… 2. for most of their existence they were polytheistic eventually, some celtic tribes adopted christianityas their preferred spiritual path. but for the bulk of celtic existence, theypracticed polytheism; the worship of many gods. it’s not unusual that they’d have worshippednumerous gods, considering the same was true of their contemporaries, like the greeks andromans.

and the chief purveyors of celtic polytheism,or celtic paganism, were the druids. believe it or not, much of what we know ofthe druids and druidism comes from, of all people, julius caesar. obviously, that’s part of what renders ourknowledge of the druids information that should probably be taken with at least a small grainof salt, considering caesar and his empire were frequently at war with the celts. still, caesar relayed that the druids wereteachers and priests, and also rendered judgement and penalties resulting from crimes and squabbleswithin their tribes. as alluded to in the previous entry, the starsplayed a significant role in the celtic religion

and druidism. they also practiced ritual sacrifice to appeasetheir gods (with the burning of wicker men – sacrificial victim or victims inside – whichwill send a shiver down nic cage’s spine should he read this), and believed in reincarnation. 1. the celts weren’t really, well, “celts” confused? don’t be. it’s a lot simpler than the header probablymakes it sound.

you see, the group you think of as the “celts”isn’t really the celts, at least not in the sense that the romans were the romans,or the greeks were the greeks. that’s because the celts weren’t justone group; they consisted of many, including the aforementioned gaels, the britons, thegauls, and the galatians, among others. see, “celtic” really referred to language,and the somewhat similar dialects these various tribes used. that said, grouping all of those tribes togetherunder one umbrella – which, again, was done by contemporaries like the greeks and romans,since the celts themselves didn’t keep written records – is probably misleading.

some historians suggest that the languageswere different enough, and the groups so spread out (as far east as turkey, all the way westto the atlantic ocean) that it’s highly unlikely most of the tribes were remotelyunited.

women and sexuality,in fact, it’s believed part of the reasonthey were ultimately defeated by the romans was because of their lack of unification. in essence, calling a gaul “celtic” wouldbe akin to calling a german “european.” technically correct, but highly generalized.

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